Wednesday, March 02, 2005

GUITAR prediction of He4 Abundance in the Universe

The Big Bang theory claims the calculation of He4 abundance in the universe as one of the three pillars supporting the BB theory. They further claim that virtually all of the He4 in the universe was synthesised within the first 3 minutes of the Big Bang, and that He4 synthesised during thermal nuclear reactions in stars does not constitute a significant amount.

Nothing could be further from truth. The existence of supernova explosions along tells you that a significant stars could exhaust almost all hydrogen and synthesised a big portion of He4 by the time of supernova erruption.

I will show here how the correct amount of abundance of He4 in the universe can be obtained from thermal nuclear processes in stars, therefore leaving zero percent of He4 to be explained by the BigBang.

I will start with the same g factor I derived a while ago, which was used to obtain the correct baryon density, the correct CMB temperature, and the correct solar radiation constant. Basically:
g = (2/PI)*sqrt(alpha), alpha = fine structure constant.
We know:
(Baryon density)/(Critical density) = g = 5.4383%
(CMB energy density)/(Critical density) = g^3/PI = g^2/PI * 5.4383%

So the ratio of radiation energy (CMB) to luminant mass (baryon density) is
g^2/PI = (4/PI^3)*alpha

Now, let's start with all hydrogens, and allow a certain percentage (p) of hydrogen to synthesis into He4. During this process a certain amount of mass turns into the energy. Let see how much that amount is.

The thermal nuclear process goes like 4 hydrogens turn into one He4 plus some energy release. Look up the atomic weight of Hydrogen and He4:

Hydrogen: 1.008
He4: 4.0026

The loss of mass, which is converted into energy, during this process is:
Delta E = Delta M = 1.008 * 4 - 4.0026 = 0.0294

Compare this mass change (energy release) with the mass of hydrogen:
0.0294/(4 * 1.008) = 0.007292

Please note how extremely that ratio is close to alpha (1/137.036). Actually it should be exactly alpha if it were not for the uncertainty of atomic weights.

So when hydrogen is turned into He4, alpha of the total mass is turned into energy.

Half of that energy will be carried away by the neutrino, and the other half released as radiation. So

(P: Percentage of Hydrogen converted) * 0.5 * alpha = CMB/Baryon
(P/2)*alpha = g^2/PI = (4/PI^3)*alpha

Therefore we get p, which is the percentage of Hydrogen converted into He, which is also the He abundance in the universe:

(P/2) = 4/PI^3
P = (2/PI)^3
P = 25.8%

So we obtained He abundance of 25.8%, which agrees perfectly with the observed value of one quarter.

This falsifies the Big Bang completely, just as the star radiation energy falsifies CMB as Big Bang remains. The problem is we KNOW thermal nuclear reactions happen in stars. So stars do radiate the right amount of energy for CMB, as well as generate the right amount of He4 in the process to account for the 1/4 He4 abundance.

The problem for Big Bang is we have to attribute 100% of the observed amount of He4 as generated by stars, that leaves no He4 to be generated in the first 3 minutes of Big Bang. Like wise we have to attribute 100% of CMB energy to star radiation energy, which again leaves 0% to be atrributed as remains of Big Bang.

And the third pillar of Big Bang, the Hubble redshift, has successfully been explained as the universal relativity, due to limited and closed spacetime of the universe. So that's a complete success on the GUITAR part and complete failure of the Big Bang model.

This absolutely is NOT numerology! The g was exactly derived from first principle in GUITAR, when I have time I will show exactly where that (2/PI) factor came from, and the same g is used to obtain baryon density, CMB temperature, solar radiation constant, and He4 abundance. The same g = (2/PI)*sqrt(alpha)!



Blogger Quantoken said...

Some one posted anonymously on Lubos's BLOG regarding this. So here is my followup:

Mr Anonymous, you are encouraged to go post your opinion on my BLOG and discuss there. I am following up here on Lubos's blog only because you post it here.

"(1)A lot of the helium produced in stars during their main sequence phase subsequently gets burned to form carbon and nitrogen in the red giant phase. Type Ic supernovae have no helium lines since all the helium has been burned up."

Evidently only an insignificant amount of He4 is converted this way. Astronomical observation shows a dorminate hydrogen at 3/4, and He4 at 1/4, and only a very tiny fraction of the baryon mass are other, heavier elements.

Do not read too much into the lack of He4 spectrum line in Supernova. At the kind of extreme temperature of supernova eruption, there is hardly any whole He4 atoms left. Everything is ionized so why do you expect to see any atomic emission spectrum lines? You would only be able to see absorption lines when the light pass through inter-galaxy gas clouds. So it only tells you the lack of He4 in those clouds.

"(2) Only a tiny amount of the energy produced in the P-P cycle is carried off by neutrinos NOT half of it."

Neutrino is still a big mistery so don't believe every data you are told. Basic physics instinctions will tell you that the energy is likely shared evenly by all degrees of freedoms. Therefore if neutrinos are massless particles like photons, I expect them to carry away the SAME amount of energy as photons.

Scientists could hardly produce REAL nuclear fusions in labs, the same condition like what goes on in the Sun, and in a very controled manner while doing accurate measurements. Controlable thermal nuclear fusion is still a few decades away.

Therefore, although the total energy released in solar proton processes is known, precisely, by looking at the difference of atomic weights. Exactly who carries how much portion of that energy is NEVER actually measured, but deduced from some models which may or may not be correct.

Doing an experimental measurement of the actual energy partition would require simulating the SAME temperature and density in the core of the Sun, not higher and not lower. And you would expect the reaction rate to be extremely low because it is extremely low on the Sun. No such experiment is feasible in the near future.

"(3) Stars have thermal gradients
in their atmospheres and can never be producers of perfect black body radiation. The CMB radiation also has angular scale-invariant fluctuations, measured with great precision now, that star radiation can never have."

No one says the CMB photons come directly from the star. I only said the CMB energy originated from star radiations. The lights emitted from stars must have been mediated by some sort of intergalactic matters, before it is converted to CMB radiation. Such mediation would even it out to form perfect blackbody spectrum.

The universe is an incredibly huge shallow chamber, perfectly suited to create and maintain blackbody radiation. The mediating matter can be extremely thin (extremely low density), and does NOT need to fill out the whole space, and does not even need to be very absorptive or emittive at CMB wavelength range. As long as it has minimal interaction with CMB radiation at all, given long enough time the CMB will reach perfect blackbody equilibrium.

Remember how blackbody spectrum is derived in general physics class? The emissibility of the material forming the chamber does NOT matter. Once it reaches thermal equilibrium, it's perfect blackbody spectrum. That's because the energy will be perfectly evenly partitioned among all degrees of freddoms, upon thermal equilibrium.

As what you claim "The CMB radiation also has angular scale-invariant fluctuations, measured with great precision now" That's a complete lie. There is no great precision. The fluctuation is about the same order as instrumental errors. That's why just a few years ago when the instruments were slightly less precise they could not even detect such fluctuation at all. Now they just have some instrument slightly more sensitive and beginning to see the fluctuation, but it is in no may much bigger than the instrumental errors. The signal to noise ratio is still very low.

So stop lying about "great precision". There is none.

Do you realize "angular scale-invariant fluctuations" is just a fancier word describing what people normally would just call "white noise".

You detected some white noises. Big deal? Your theory predicted there would be some white noises. Big deal. Any physics system or any measurement contain white noises. White noises are every where you look.

Big Bang hasn't been able to predict the exact magnitude of that white noise fluctuation. All it ever predicted is the fluctuation will be "angular scale invariant", i.e., it should exihibit white noise characteristics, i.e., no recognizable pattern.

I would have taken them more seriously if they found some specific pattern that make the fluctuation different from white noise, and they were able to predict that characteristics before hand. "Prediction" of existence of white noise is just a joke.


1:58 PM

Blogger mario said...

Six Steps to Success
Throughout the centuries history tells of men and women with the midas touch, who achieved greatness against what seemed insurmountable odds. To some their successes appeared to be the result of blind luck, to others the reward for hard work, but the truth about the successes of men such as Andrew Carnagie and Henry Ford is much more interesting.

Success is a state of mind to which all people should aspire. Like many others you can unlock te gate to achievement and the fulfilment of yor personal desires. With the six steps outlined below anyone can arrive at a set destination, with the added advantage of renewed self-confidence and secure in the knowledge that every goal is attainable.
Step 1. Desire
The key factor involved in the process of achieving any desire lies in the response of one's mind to the objective. If a complacent attitude is apparent then there will be a lack of enthusiasm leading to failure or only half-success.
If a goal is to be reached determination is needed to carry set plans through to a successful conclusion. This determination must have enough mental 'weight' behind it to propel you forward onto the road of achievement. This mental state can only be instilled by one thing - desire!
As can be easily seen, when we look around us, it is this desire-force that has launched mankind on his frenzied zest for ever-new knowledge and has enabled him to push back the boundaries of science to never dreamed of achievement.

It is this same desire-force that must be used in our business and personal affairs if the success we seek is to materialize. It is not very hard to develop this kind of desire for all you have to do is go after what you really want - its that simple. With this desire you will have all the persistence you need to accomplish your goal. There is a great saying "you never fail until you give up"!
Take heed of what Napoleon Bonaparte said "What we ardently and constantly desire, we always get".

Step 2. Goals
If success is to come your must realise what is expected to materialize. This statement may seem obvious at first but if careful thought is given its meaning takes on deeper significance.
Many people fail to gain satisfactory results from their endeavours because they did not know what they wanted to accomplish in the first place. Your objective must not be hazy or incomplete. Before you reach your goal you must be able to identify how your life will be different when you achieve it. You must know exactly what it is that you want to achieve. How will your life be better/different? How will you feel? What way will you look? What situations will you find yourself in? Will other people in your life be effected and if so how will they react? You need a clear definite picture in your mind of what the attainment of your goal will mean to you.

Step 3. Belief
Belief is the back-up system of desire. It keep the fires of enthusiasm burning and makes us continually strive to get nearer the goal attainment. Faith can truly move mountains; the mountains of fear, inferiority, worry and low self esteem - 'the success killers'!
Once a goal is firmly fixed in mind and our desire-force is hurtling us toward seemingly insurmountable obstacles, the firm belief that we can gain a favourable outcome can spur us on to victory. When the mind has been manipulated to reflect this state, wonderful physical results can ensue, producing symptoms of success in our lives in every area imaginable.
Although many can attest to the power of belief and to the wondrous accomplishments that were achieved through nothing else except faith, it still remains that many individuals find it hard to believe that a positive outcome will be forthcoming when they are faced with momentous opposition. Whether the opposition is mental or physical the fact that nothing seems to be going right and everything seems to be wrong is enough for even the strongest of us to 'throw in the towel'. But it is in these very situations that faith can conquer all. Faith in yourself, what you are doing and belief that that your objective will be reached.
There are some who bemoan "easier said than done". This is exactly the kind of mental attitude that sustains the problems that they are trying to eradicate. If your belief power is not apparent, take hope for it can be acquired.
Each morning and night recite your intentions from a written list of your goals. Voice your belief in your own abilities. Tell yourself that in due course you will be successful. As you go about your daily affairs reflect as often as possible on your goals and affirm that they are yours now. Fool your mind into believing it and you will see your world reflect it!

Step 4. Plan
Having decided upon your goal and being determined to build your faith you need to give your desire-force a 'vehicle' through which it may materialize. This 'vehicle' will take the form of a definite plan of action.
Do you need to acquire certain skills? Do you need to know certain people or be in certain places to help you achieve your goal? Make a plan that will help you get closer to your end objective. Research your desires and get clear on what you need to do. Then do it!
Ensure that your plan is workable and realistic for you. Although your plan should remain flexible so that changes can be made when appropriate only make changes after careful consideration. Trial and error will eventually show the way to a good plan although you should be open to intuition also.
However, I should point out that, it is very likely your goal will materialize in a most unexpected way. The fact that you have set a plan for its accomplishment tends to set things in motion and like a chain reaction (or the butterfly effect) subtle changes made by you may cause dramatic changes elsewhere and your goal may come before your plan is completed.

Step 5. Visualization
Visualization is the art of creating mental movies of your completed goal. This has many beneficial effects upon your consciousness. Without going into the deeper esoteric benefits of using this art let me just say that you are truly designing your life when you use it. It has one other major benefit - it strengthens your desire and persistence because you momentarily experience the thrill of having achieved your goal!
Just form a mental picture of having achieved your goal. See what you will see. Feel how wonderful it will be. See how it effects everyone around you. Hear people congratulate you. When this state is experienced nothing will stop you in your quest for your objective and thus your belief-power will also be reinforced.

Step 6. The Subconscious Mind
It is within the subconscious part of your mind that you hold all th positive and negative beliefs about yourself - your self-image. These beliefs are reflected back to you in the form of attitudes. Therefore it is from the subconscious mind that the thought of failure or success comes.

Attitudes are just mental programs and so is your self-image. They can easily be changed (yes I said 'easily'). Any attitude or belief can be changed by using the formula outlined in this article - by combining affirmations with visualization. Henry Ford used it, as did Ralph Waldo Emerson and even Arnold Swatzeneger. It is reported in some circles that a similar technique was employed by Bill Gates to build his global empire. Andrew Carnegie used it exactly as described to attain and give away multi-millions even though he was an unschooled manual worker when he started it. Carnegie's legacy can still be seen today when you freely borrow a book from any Carnegie library of which there are thousands.
If you use these six steps there is nothing you cannot achieve. Luckily we have the advantage of living in the Twentieth Century with all its new technology and innovations such as hypnosis and subliminal programming. Use these steps in conjunction with your favourite personal development system and you are assured success. hypnosis

7:11 AM


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